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From history....

Petr the Great"...Because this waters cure various cruel illnesses, in particular: scurvy, morbid depression, gall, stomach weakness, vomiting, diarrhoea, stones, kidneys; and have the great power against other illnesses..."

(From the decree of Peter the Great on the opening of "Marcial Waters " resourt on the Olonets, March 20, 1719.)

This Emperor’s decree three hundred years old is far from the most ancient historical evidence concerning shungite - a unique stone which is mined in Karelia, near the small settlement called Shunga, in a single location on the shores of Lake Onega. For a long time local residents were aware of the mysterious "great power" of shungite or black "slate stone" (as it was called in the old days), curing many diseases and purifying water in the area.

Although the exact age shungite is uncertain, the scientists agree that it ranges from 600 million to 4 billion years ago.

There are several theories of the shungite origin.

Firstly, there is a speculation that marine sediments enriched by the organic remains of the primitive microscopic organisms lived in the shallow bays of the ancient sea served as the basic material for formation of shungite.

Secondly, quite a fantastic theory is that shungite is a part of giant meteorite which brought to the Earth a part of the collapsed planet Phaethon, on which the oxygen form of life once existed. And it formed shungite deposits in the place of its fall.

Thirdly, some researchers argue that the form and structure shungite body has features and characteristics of volcanic materials. Perhaps volcanic emissions of shungite substances in the atmosphere played a role similar to that of a hypothetical piece of the planet Phaethon.

Let it be as it should be, but what is for sure is that there is a mineral which has no analogue in both healing qualities and other diversity of properties.

In the times of Boris Godunov (reigned in 1584 - 1605, the first non-Rurik tsar)

Boris Godunov

The "official" data of the use of shungite dates approximately five centuries ago. Boris Godunov came to the throne after the death of Ivan Grozny and he, like all dictators, introduced a perfectly running secret police, which clearly reported to him that the boyars Romanovs did not agree with his reign and were preparing for his replacement. He did not execute the members of this famous family, but exiled them in the far away corners of the then Russia.

KseniaSo, one of the Romanovs family, Ksenia was exiled to the northern coast of Lake Onega – to a small church, clearly for a cold and starvation death. Prior to this exile she gave birth to seven boys, who died in infancy. The local farmers, feeling sorry for her, gave her water from a local spring. Two years later, when a protégé of the Romanov family - Dmitri the "Impostor" came to the reign, she could return to Moscow. Some time later she gave birth to eight boys, one of whom – Michael was elected the first king of the Romanov dynasty at age 16. He lived quite a long time, at that time, - 46 years.

In the times of Peter I the Great (reigned in 1682 – 1725)

At the times of Peter I the healing springs of Lake Onega got a great development. The springs were researched by the outstanding physicians of the time, Robert Areskin (Erskine), a Scotsman by birth, a close friend and adviser of the king, made a great contribution to the development of medical affairs in Russia, and Lawrence Blumentrosta (Blumentrost), who already at age 22 received his degree of the Doctor of Medicine, later the first president of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

Karelia

Having visited the European resorts on the advice of Robert Areskin, Peter I got convinced of the therapeutic value of mineral waters and subsequently ordered to search for mineral springs in Russia. The search was unsuccessful for a long time. In 1714 the worker of Konchezersky copper smelting plant Ivan Reboev, "suffering from cardiac pain and almost dragged his feet" was sent to Ravboloto (District of Lake Onega) to look after the drivers of iron ( "swamp") ore. There he found an ice-water spring water which after three days of admission brought him relief.

Reboev told the plant manager Zimmerman about the miraculous healing. Zimmerman told further Olonets commandant Villim Gennin. Gennin, knowing of the king’s decree to search for the healing waters, reported in writing to his superior - Admiral Fyodor Matveevich Apraksin, who in his turn reported to the king. In autumn 1717 Peter I sent his court doctors Robert Areskin and Lawrence Blumentros with orders to investigate the water.

Areskin

The studies conducted by the court physicians in 1717 - 1719 years confirmed the healing properties of water. In the same year Reboev was freed from serfdom.

Conclusions of the court medics were as follows: 'This water is of great force against heart disease, liver, rheumatism, heaviness in the joints and other ailments". The water was tested on the ordinary people who all they received "perfect health".

Afterwards, the Decree "On the opening of "Marcial Waters" and the "Doctor rules how to receive this water treatment" were issued..

During these years, a surgeon Anthony Ravinel published an article "The genuine inquiry about the action of Marcial Konchezerskaya water", which contained nine brief descriptions of diseases with their outcomes after treatment with Marcial waters. At the end of the list there is description of a case with the following disease: "A schoolboy, from the children of the nobility, suffered from urine constipation and illness in underbelly and kidneys from the early years. This decease came every month and a half months and held 10 and 12 and 15 days of the great illness, [he] was compelled to lie to the whole months, but as I gave him 5 grand of the salt from Marcial waters on the first, 10 grand on second day, and therefore with God's help is no longer a disease". Thus, Ravinel used not only water in his experiments, but also salt evaporated from the water. He often prescribed the use of "iron" compositions. Some historians of medicine believe that "The genuine inquiry" by Ravinel to be the first original medical study in Russian.

L.L. Blumentrost developed a drug called "Essention Marcial". According to doctor, the drug had "the power of dividing and nutritious" and could be used "all over pores of the liver and spleen,... in a melancholy or sadness disease."

Petr's soldiersIt is believed that its name, devoted to the god of war Mars, the resort "Marcial Waters" received because the wounded and sick soldiers of Peter the Great were treated on the waters, and it was believed that iron was under the auspices of Mars. Having learned about the unique antiseptic properties of the stone, Peter the Great allegedly ordered that every his soldier should have a piece of shungite (in those days it was called slate stone) in the backpack. The soldiers used to drop the stone in a pot with water and thus received fresh and disinfected water.

Peter I himself visited the resort "Marcial Waters" four times - in 1719, 1720, 1722 and 1724, respectively. For the emperor and his family there were built palaces, which, however, quickly came into neglect after the death of the emperor. Modern doctors agree that his visits to the resort extended his rather messy life for decades.

In the times of Elizaveta Petrovna (reigned in 1741–1762)

Elizaveta PetrovnaAfter decades later, in the middle of the XVIII century, Elizaveta Petrovna was trying to revive the former glory of the resort. In the years of her reign the mineral water was imported in large quantities from abroad, what cost huge money. She ordered that a commission under the leadership of the court physician Burgaev was sent Olonetsky district. Soon the court physician came to the conclusion that "barely smallest particles of mineral salts were noticed in the water, and the water did not cure the patients properly." Burgaev could not make another conclusion, as he had got good money for patronage of waters from abroad, and all his well-being depended on the importation of foreign goods.

As a result, the activities of the resort were suspended for more than a half century. Most of the buildings and palaces were demolished. And only in 1910 a wooden house was built on the spot "Tsarev spring" to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty.

Decline and Revival

KareliaThe official decline of the resort had no impact on local residents, they continued to enjoy their reviving water springs. The scientists periodically showed interest to the springs. Thus, one of the works of the last century, devoted to the healing waters, mud and sea bathing in Russia and abroad, characterized in detail the deposits of Marcial water and claimed that the Marcial waters considerably excelled the world-famous resorts of Marienbad in many ways.

In the Soviet time, in the 30's, the studies of spa resources of Karelia intensified thanks largely to the activities of the honoured Physician of Russia and Karelia S.A. Vishnevsky. Expeditions were organized to study the Marcial waters and gabozersky curative mud. The results of their work were later summarized in the book "Healing areas of Karelia", edited by M.D. Tushinsky and S.A. Vishnevsky. In 1940 the Karelian government decided to restore the resort and opening of the spa, but this was interrupted by the war. The rebirth of the resort took place only in 1964. Now the resort "Marcial Waters" has modern buildings, where various diseases are treated with the help of Marcial waters. People can drink water from the iron springs which gives a beneficial effect on the body.

History of the discovery of fullerenes in shungite

Marсial waters owe shungite rocks (through which water flows) their healing properties. Fullerenes transfer into the water, and with water get in the body. They change the structure of the water. Properties of shungite are so unique that scientists around the world are still exploring its physical, chemical and therapeutic properties.

fullereneIn 1985, the researchers’ world got a sensation: a group of American and British scientists involved in the study of interstellar dust, managed to create in the laboratory conditions by synthesizing a new molecular's super solid form of the existence of carbon - fullerenes.

The importance of this discovery is that until now scientists were aware of only three modifications of carbon - diamond, graphite and carbyne. The new molecule can cut diamond as oil, slows down the growth of cancer cells, substance obtained on its basis can slow the activity of the AIDS virus. The discovery of the fullerenes was a real breakthrough in nanotechnology and was declared a sensation of the 20th century, and the scientists who discovered it received the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1996.

In 1992, after the discovery of the fullerene molecule in the laboratory conditions, the world was shaken by a new discovery. Russian former scientist Semeon Tsipursky with his American colleague Peter Buseck were the first to discover evidence of fullerenes C60 and C70 in the nature of the earth. In memory of his geological expedition to Karelia Semen Tsipursky, immigrating to the United States, took with him a small piece of shungite, where they discovered fullerenes.

The scientists checked their suspicions in the largest science and energy laboratory of the U.S.Department of Energy. By conducting various experiments Bob Hettich, the scientist from the laboratory, confirmed the presence of fullerenes in shungite, noting that he would rather expect to find them in the meteorites due to their special composition and way of formation.

Fullerenes are a special form of carbon. A carbon, as known, is the foundation of life on the Earth.

Sources


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